Computer Ethics

Computer Ethics

Q. What do you mean by ethics? What is it necessary?
Ans: Ethics is the classical sense, refers to the rules and standards governing the conduct of an individual with others. In order to keep healthy environment in computer room, to make good relation co-workers and to improve the working efficiency some basic ethics are necessary.

Q. What is Spam?
Ans. Spam are unwanted e-mail which are business related and sent to the e-mail account in bulk.

Q. what is Hacking?
Ans. Hacking is a technique by which some computers experts reach to any private or confidential area of the computer and steal information available on the computer.

Q. What do you know about computer viruses?
Ans. Computer Viruses are generally developed with a definite intention to change computer files or cause inconvenience and annoyance to computer users.

Q. Do computers have an impact in our daily lives. Give examples to support your argument.
Ans. Yes. Computers prevail every aspect of modern life.

Q. What do you understand by ‘Intellectual Property Rights’?
Ans. Intellectual property rights are the rights given to people for the original creations of their minds. They usually give the creator an exclusive rights over the use of his/her creation for a certain period of time.

Q. Name the types of intellectual property rights.
Ans. The types of intellectual property protection rights are Copyright. Patents and Trademarks.

Q. Complete the following abbreviation: NASSCOM, HOLMES, DPA.
Ans. NASSCOM: National Association of Software and Service Companies. HOLMES:  Home Office Large Major Enquiry System. DPA   : Data Protection Act.

Q. What should a user had do to protect the database from being changed or misused by other internet users.
Ans: User should have to change his/her password very frequently.

Q. What do you know about software copyright law?
Ans. Computer software is covered by the laws, which covers a wide range of intellectual property such as music, literature and software. The main provisions of the act is to make illegal to:(i) Copy software.(ii) Run pirated software.(iii) Transmit software over a telecommunication line, thereby creating a copy.

Q. List the measure taken by an individual to protect his/her rights to privacy.
Ans.(i) Avoid being added to mailing lists.(ii) Make online purchase only through secure websites.(iii) Never assume that  your e-mail is private.(iv) Be careful when posting to newsgroups.(v) Do not make online argument.

Q. What is the difference between Junk and Junk e-mails.
Ans. Junk faxes: The unsolicited and unwanted messages receive from unnamed senders, are junk faxes. junk e-mails: The unwanted messages from various senders in an electronic mail box are junk e-mail.

Q. What is spoofing?
Ans. Spoofing enables the junk e-mail to hide his or her identity from the recipient spoofing the sender places a false return address on the junk message.

Q. What do you understand by Malicious code?
Ans. Malicious code can be defined as “software which interferes with the normal operation  of a computer system”

Q. Name the types of malicious code?
Ans. There are three types of malicious code: (i) Virus (ii) Worm (iii) Trojan.

Q. What is worm?
Ans. A program which copies itself into nodes in a network, without permission is called a worm.

Q. What is Trojan?
Ans. A program which masquerades as a legitimate program, but does something  other than what was intended.

Q. What is viruses?
Ans. Viruses  are generally developed with a definite intention to damage files or cause inconvenience and annoyance to computer users.

Q. What a short note on Cyber Crime.
Ans. Cyber Crime: Cyber crime  is that crime which is done through internet. The Cyber act 2000, was now enforced by Indian government to punish  the cyber Criminals.

The points of cyber act 2000 are as follows. (i) The documents transferred through internet are legally valid and can be produced in court of law. (ii) The digital signatures are described on Authentic documents. (iii) Cyber crime is defined and provision of giving punishment to the cyber criminals. (iv) A plan is made to investigate the cyber crime and to take action on the criminal activities in cyber field.

Q. The illegal use of computer system is sometimes known as computer related crimes.  (i)  Give three distinct examples of computer related crimes. (ii) Give three steps can be computers related crimes are:
Ans: (a) Hacking: Hacking is defined as unauthorized access to data held on computer system. Hacking is often caused by employees of a company who  have inside knowledge  of particular users and passwords. The ability of such hackers to carry out illegal actions without being detected is hampered by the audit and monitor software  that comes with operating systems. The motive behind hacking can often be mischievous, computing student who are learning about operating system may take delight in penetrating a school’s security system  to prove that it can be done.
(b) Viruses: Viruses are generally developed with a definite intention to damage computer files or, cause inconvenience and annoyance to computer user. The virus usually overwrites the first few instructions of a particular program on an infected disk and relies on a user choosing to execute that program. When an infected program is executed the virus spreads by first series of instructions. In most cases the viruses first action is to copy itself from the diskette into the PC and hide within obscure files. The virus can than proceed to perform any of the tasks ranging from irritating to disaster such as reformatting the hard disk. Some viruses lie sleeping waiting to be particular event or date the ‘Friday 13th virus’ being a well-known one. The virus then infect other diskettes or spreads through e-mail to other system.
(c) Spamming: Spam are unwanted e-mail which are business related and sent to the e-mail account in bulk. This fills the e-mail storage capacity and wastes user time because the subject are shown very attractive like- ‘Some one is waiting for you’, ‘Get a car free’, ‘Give answer and be millionaire’ etc., and users could not resist themselves from reading it. Some times they get many links on that e-mail and visit on different web sites. Thus it is clear that spams are unwanted e-mail which waste our time, efforts and cover the memory space Sometimes they send virus too. (ii) The three steps that can be taken to help in preventing computer related crimes are:

(a) In Cyber act 2000 there are various sections in which hackers can be pushed. In section 43 and 44 punishment are very hard so it is very difficult to courage to hack the system. According to section 43 of Cyber act 2000 t he hacker can be fined upto Rs. One crore.

(b) To protect the computer from virus users must have a latest powerful anti virus software which can scan all types of virus and kill them if encountered.

(c) To protect the computer against spam, there are some tools know as filter. The filters are software which control the flow of e-mail, Spam Cide Spam Hater, Spam Attack Pro and Spam EX are example of such filters.

Q. Describe four separate measure that can be taken to prevent accidental or deliberate misuse of date on a stand- alone computer system.
Ans:- Measure that can betaken include:

(i) Physical restrictions to the computer departments. Most organizations require all employees to wear an ID badge. The computer rooms are commonly protected  from access by a locked door, which can only be opened by authorized personnel.

(ii) While using a computer terminal, people are require to sign on with a user-ID and password, Password must not be written down must not be composed of common names, word or dates and must be changed frequently.

(iii) Restrictions are placed on the location and time at which computer can be used to access data. So that for example a user in the production department will not be able to access records.

(iv) Special software can be installed on a computer system which will maintain an ‘audit’ of who has logged on from which computer terminal and for how much time. This will enable any unusual activity to be spotted and  investigations made.

Q. What do you understand by Internal and External threats to a computer system.
Ans:- Internal Threats: Data and programs within a computer system are vulnerable to deliberate and accidental destruction both from within an organization and from outside it. When it is floppy disk, Which after months of the project loading without complaint. comes up with a message, disk unreliable, then it is termed as Internal Threat to the system.

External Threats: Criminals hacking into major banks  computer system can steal millions or rupees i.e., by transferring money to phony accounts or making fund credit and purchased. This phenomenon is called as External Threat to the system.

Q. Describes some Internal Threats to the system.
Ans. Internal Threats to the System.

Some Internal Threats to the System are as follows.

(i) Hardware Failure:- A disk head crash for example can make the contents of a hard disk unreadable.

(ii) Faulty Procedures:- A careless employees who makes entries into an accounts system can cause havoc.

(iii) Natural Disasters:- Fire flood hurricanes and earthquakes can destroy a building  taking every last customer record with it.

(iv) Dishonest staff:- Computer systems are vulnerable fraud and theft of data both from inside and outside the organization.

Q. Mention some External Threats to the systems.
Ans: External Threats to the Systems.

(i) Hackers gaining entry to company databases and stealing or corrupting data or using the information gained to carry out fraudulent transctions.

(ii) Viruses being downloaded from the internet.

Unless system are perceived to be secure organization many suffer from a lack of confidence by the customers. Bank are generally reluctant  to disclose how much money they have lost through insecure systems. Many people are unwilling to give credit card numbers while making purchased through the Internet.

Q. What do you understand by the word Privacy ? Why does many companies routinely monitor their purchase through the Internet.
Ans. Privacy:- Privacy includes the person’s private information such as address, phone number social security number and so on.

Many companies routinely monitor their employees communications due to several compelling reasons:-

(i) To protect trade secrets.

(ii) To prevent the distribution of libelous or slanderous messages.

(iii) To prevent the system’s users from downloading or copying data that is illegal pornographic or infected by computer viruses.

(iv) To ensure that organizational resources are not being wasted or abused.

Q. What are software ethics?
Ans:-Software ethics refer to ensuring that the software being used is not pirated or unauthorized. These also include developers should be given a fair return of their work.

Q. What are individual’s right to privacy?
Ans:- The right to privacy also involves the decisions pertaining to question like  what information about one’s self or one’s associations must a person reveal to other under what conditions and with what safeguards? What things can people keep to them and not be forced to reveal to others?

Q. What are  intellectual property rights?
Ans:- Intellectual property rights are the rights of the owners of information to decide how much information is to be exchanged shared or distributed. Also it given the owners a rights to decide the price for doing (exchanging/ sharing/ distributing) so.

Q. Explain in Brief “Software Piracy”?
Ans: The biggest illegal issue affecting the computer industry is Software Piracy. Software Piracy is the illegal copying of programs. it is a crime that effects the sale of original software and encourage illegal work of theft of the effort of the original software makers. Software’s are pirated in many ways. The simplest method is to copy the software from its original floppy disk or CD disk. The piracy is painful for users also because the buyer’s does not take any responsibility, if any action is taken against users by police or software manufacturer.

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